this essay is all over the map. What does Keynes have to do with this? You haven’t introduced him. He’s not Adam Smith. Also, I don’t think you understand the context in which the industrial revolution sprang up — war, brutal labor, harsh conditions, overlords, terrible health. Factories improved life for millions, including many who worked in them. May not be awesome from our point of view, but you are aiming the lens in the wrong direction. Everything is adaptive, and factories were a success because they improved life, even if it doesn’t look like it. Rice fields are not a lot better.